Nitschke, Pyrenomyc. Germ. 2: 240. 1870. Fig. 7, Fig. 8.

Fig. 7. Disease symptoms associated with Diaporthe spp. A, B. Helianthus annuus plants affected by Diaporthe gulyae (courtesy Susan Thompson). C, D. Branch canker of Persea americana with associated Diaporthe foeniculina and Diaporthe sterilis. E, F. Phomopsis cane (courtesy Alessandro Vitale) and cane bleaching on shoot of Vitis vinifera caused by Diaporthe spp. (courtesy José Luis Ramos Sáez de Ojer). G, H. Decay of Vaccinium corymbosum caused by Diaporthe baccae and Diaporthe sterilis and artificial infection caused by inoculation of Diaporthe sterilis. I. Trunk canker with gummosis of Citrus limon caused by Diaporthe limonicola and Diaporthe melitensis. Pictures C, D taken from Guarnaccia et al. (2016); I from Guarnaccia & Crous (2017).

Fig. 8. Diaporthe spp. A–D. Sexual morph. A, B. Ascomata. A. Diaporthe ambigua (ex-type CBS 114015). B. Diaporthe aspalathi (ex-type CBS 117169). C, D. Asci with ascospores. C. Diaporthe ambigua (ex-type CBS 114015). D. Diaporthe aspalathi (ex-type CBS 117169). EM. Asexual morph. E, F. Conidiomata sporulating. E. Diaporthe limonicola (ex-type CBS 142549). F. Diaporthe pseudomangiferae (ex-type CBS 101339). GI. Conidiogenous cells and conidia. G. Diaporthe raonikayaporum (ex-type CBS 133182). H. Diaporthe tecomae (CBS 100547). I. Diaporthe limonicola (ex-type CBS 142549). J, K. Alpha conidia. J. Diaporthe cinerascens (CBS 719.96). K. Diaporthe pseudomangiferae (ex-type CBS 101339). L. Beta conidia of Diaporthe eleagni (CBS 504.72). M. Alpha, beta and gamma conidia of Diaporthe limonicola (ex-type CBS 142549). Scale bars = 10 μm. Pictures A–D taken from Van Rensburg et al. (2006); F–H, J–L from Gomes et al. (2013); E, I, M from Guarnaccia & Crous (2017).

Synonym: Phomopsis, Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 2: 484. 1883.

Classification: Sordariomycetes, Sordariomycetidae, Diaporthales, Diaporthaceae.

Type species: Diaporthe eres Nitschke. Lectotype designated by Udayanga et al. (2014a): B 70 0009145. Epitype and ex-epitype strain designated by Udayanga et al. (2014a): BPI 892912, AR5193 = CBS 138594.

DNA barcodes (genus): ITS.

DNA barcodes (species): cal, his3, tef1, tub2. Table 4. Fig. 9.

Table 4. DNA barcodes of accepted Diaporthe spp.

Species Isolates1 GenBank accession numbers2 References
ITS tub2 his3 tef1 cal
Diaporthe acaciarum CBS 138862T KP004460 KP004509 KP004504 Crous et al. (2014b)
D. acaciigena CBS 129521T KC343005 KC343973 KC343489 KC343731 KC343247 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. acericola MFLUCC 17-0956T KY964224 KY964074 KY964180 KY964137 Dissanayake et al. (2017a)
D. acerina CBS 137.27 KC343006 KC343974 KC343490 KC343732 KC343248 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. acutispora CGMCC 3.18285T KX986764 KX999195 KX999235 KX999155 KX999274 Gao et al. (2017)
D. alleghaniensis CBS 495.72T FJ889444 KC843228 KC343491 GQ250298 KC343249 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. alnea CBS 146.46T KC343008 KC343976 KC343492 KC343734 KC343250 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. ambigua CBS 114015T KC343010 KC343978 KC343494 KC343736 KC343252 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. ampelina CBS 114016T AF230751 JX275452 GQ250351 JX197443 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. amygdali CBS 126679T KC343022 KC343990 KC343506 KC343748 KC343264 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. anacardii CBS 720.97T KC343024 KC343992 KC343508 KC343750 KC343266 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. angelicae CBS 111592T KC343026 KC343994 KC343511 KC343752 KC343268 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. apiculatum LC 3418T KP267896 KP293476 KP293550 KP267970 Gao et al. (2016)
D. aquatica IFRDCC 3051T JQ797437 Hu et al. (2012)
D. arctii DP0482, CBS 139280 KJ590736 KJ610891 KJ659218 KJ590776 KJ612133 Udayanga et al. (2015)
D. arecae CBS 161.64T KC343032 KC344000 KC343516 KC343758 KC343274 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. arengae CBS 114979T KC343034 KC344002 KC343518 KC343760 KC343276 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. aseana MFLUCC 12-0299aT KT459414 KT459432 KT459448 KT459464 Hyde et al. (2016)
D. asheicola CBS 136967T KJ160562 KJ160518 KJ160594 KJ160542 Lombard et al. (2014)
D. aspalathi CBS 117169T KC343036 KC344004 KC343520 KC343762 KC343278 Van Rensburg et al. (2006)
D. australafricana CBS 111886T KC343038 KC344006 KC343522 KC343764 KC343280 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. baccae CBS 136972T KJ160565 MF418509 MF418264 KJ160597 Lombard et al. (2014)
D. batatas CBS 122.21 KC343040 KC344008 KC343524 KC343766 KC343282 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. beckhausii CBS 138.27 KC343041 KC344009 KC343525 KC343767 KC343283 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. beilharziae BRIP 54792T JX862529 KF170921 JX862535 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. benedicti BPI 893190T KM669929 KM669785 KM669862 Lawrence et al. (2015)
D. betulae CFCC 50469T KT732950 KT733020 KT732999 KT733016 KT732997 Du et al. (2016)
D. betulicola CFCC 51128T KX024653 KX024657 KX024661 KX024655 KX024659 Du et al. (2016)
D. bicincta CBS 121004T KC343134 KC344102 KC343618 KC343860 KC343376 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. biconispora CGMCC 3.17252T KJ490597 KJ490418 KJ490539 KJ490476 Huang et al. (2015)
D. biguttulata ICMP20657T KJ490582 KJ490403 KJ490524 KJ490461 Huang et al. (2015)
D. biguttusis CGMCC 3.17081T KF576282 KF576306 KF576257 Gao et al. (2015)
D. bohemiae CBS 143347T MG281015 MG281188 MG281361 MG281536 MG281710 Guarnaccia et al. (2018)
D. brasiliensis CBS 133183T KC343042 KC344010 KC343526 KC343768 KC343284 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. caatingaensis CBS 141542T KY085927 KY115600 KY115605 KY115603 KY115597 Crous et al. (2016a)
D. camptothecicola CFCC 51632T KY203726 KY228893 KY228881 KY228887 KY228877 Yang et al. (2017c)
D. canthii CBS 132533T JX069864 KC843230 KC843120 KC843174 Crous et al. (2012b)
D. carpini CBS 114437 KC343044 KC344012 KC343528 KC343770 KC343286 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. cassines CBS 136440T KF777155 KF777244 Crous et al. (2013)
D. caulivora CBS 127268T KC343045 KC344013 KC343529 KC343771 KC343287 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. celastrina CBS 139.27T KC343047 KC344015 KC343531 KC343773 KC343289 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. celeris CBS 143349T MG281017 MG281190 MG281363 MG281538 MG281712 Guarnaccia et al. (2018)
D. ceratozamiae CBS 131306T JQ044420 Crous et al. (2011b)
D. cf. heveae 1 CBS 852.97 KC343116 KC344084 KC343600 KC343842 KC343358 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. cf. heveae 2 CBS 681.84 KC343117 KC344085 KC343601 KC343843 KC343359 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. chamaeropis CBS 454.81 KC343048 KC344016 KC343532 KC343774 KC343290 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. charlesworthii BRIP 54884mT KJ197288 KJ197268 KJ197250 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. cichorii MFLUCC 17-1023T KY964220 KY964104 KY964176 KY964133 Dissanayake et al. (2017a)
D. cinerascens CBS 719.96 KC343050 KC344018 KC343534 KC343776 KC343292 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. cissampeli CBS 141331T KX228273 KX228384 KX228366 Crous et al. (2016b)
D. citri CBS 135422T KC843311 KC843187 MF418281 KC843071 KC843157 Udayanga et al. (2014b)
D. citriasiana CBS 134240T JQ954645 KC357459 MF418282 JQ954663 KC357491 Huang et al. (2013)
D. citrichinensis CBS 134242T JQ954648 MF418524 KJ420880 JQ954666 KC357494 Huang et al. (2013)
D. compacta LC3083T KP267854 KP293434 KP293508 KP267928 Gao et al. (2016)
D. convolvuli CBS 124654 KC343054 KC344022 KC343538 KC343780 KC343296 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. crataegi CBS 114435 KC343055 KC344023 KC343539 KC343781 KC343297 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. crotalariae CBS 162.33T KC343056 KC344024 KC343540 KC343782 KC343298 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. cucurbitae DAOM 42078T KM453210 KP118848 KM453212 KM453211 Udayanga et al. (2015)
D. cuppatea CBS 117499T AY339322 JX275420 KC343541 AY339354 JX197414 Van Rensburg et al. (2006)
D. cynaroidis CBS 122676 KC343058 KC344026 KC343542 KC343784 KC343300 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. cytosporella CBS 137020T KC843307 KC843221 MF418283 KC843116 KC843141 Udayanga et al. (2014b)
D. decedens CBS 109772 KC343059 KC344027 KC343543 KC343785 KC343301 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. detrusa CBS 109770 KC343061 KC344029 KC343545 KC343787 KC343303 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. diospyricola CBS 136552T KF777156 Crous et al. (2013)
D. discoidispora ICMP20662T KJ490624 KJ490445 KJ490566 KJ490503 Huang et al. (2015)
D. dorycnii MFLUCC 17-1015T KY964215 KY964099 KY964171 Dissanayake et al. (2017a)
D. elaeagni-glabrae CGMCC 3.18287T KX986779 KX999212 KX999251 KX999171 KX999281 Gao et al. (2017)
D. eleagni CBS 504.72 KC343064 KC344032 KC343548 KC343790 KC343306 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. ellipicola CGMCC 3.17084T KF576270 KF576294 KF576245 Gao et al. (2015)
D. endophytica CBS 133811T KC343065 KC344033 KC343549 KC343791 KC343307 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. eres CBS 138594T KJ210529 KJ420799 KJ420850 KJ210550 KJ434999 Udayanga et al. (2014a)
D. eucalyptorum CBS 132525T JX069862 Crous et al. (2012b)
D. eugeniae CBS 444.82 KC343098 KC344066 KC343582 KC343824 KC343340 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. fibrosa CBS 109751 KC343099 KC344067 KC343583 KC343825 KC343341 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. foeniculina CBS 111553T KC343101 KC344069 KC343585 KC343827 KC343343 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. fraxini-angustifoliae BRIP 54781T JX862528 KF170920 JX862534 Tan et al. (2013)
D. fusicola CGMCC 3.17087T KF576281 KF576305 KF576256 KF576233 Gao et al. (2015)
D. ganjae CBS 180.91T KC343112 KC344080 KC343596 KC343838 KC343354 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. gardeniae CBS 288.56 KC343113 KC344081 KC343597 KC343839 KC343355 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. garethjonesii MFLUCC 12-0542aT KT459423 KT459441 KT459457 KT459470 Hyde et al. (2016)
D. goulteri BRIP 55657aT KJ197290 KJ197270 KJ197252 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. gulyae BRIP 54025T JF431299 KJ197271 JN645803 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. helianthi CBS 592.81T KC343115 KC344083 KC343599 KC343841 JX197454 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. helicis CBS 138596T KJ210538 KJ420828 KJ420875 KJ210559 KJ435043 Udayanga et al. (2014a)
D. heterophyllae CBS 143769T MG600222 MG600226 MG600220 MG600224 MG600218 Present study
D. hickoriae CBS 145.26T KC343118 KC344086 KC343602 KC343844 KC343360 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. hispaniae CBS 143351T MG281123 MG281296 MG281471 MG281644 MG281820 Guarnaccia et al. (2018)
D. hongkongensis CBS 115448T KC343119 KC344087 KC343603 KC343845 KC343361 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. hordei CBS 481.92 KC343120 KC344088 KC343604 KC343846 KC343362 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. hungariae CBS 143353T MG281126 MG281299 MG281474 MG281647 MG281823 Guarnaccia et al. (2018)
D. impulsa CBS 114434 KC343121 KC344089 KC343605 KC343847 KC343363 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. incompleta CGMCC 3.18288T KX986794 KX999226 KX999265 KX999186 KX999289 Gao et al. (2017)
D. inconspicua CBS 133813T KC343123 KC344091 KC343607 KC343849 KC343365 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. infecunda CBS 133812T KC343126 KC344094 KC343610 KC343852 KC343368 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. infertilis CBS 230.52T KC343052 KC344020 KC343536 KC343778 KC343294 Guarnaccia & Crous (2017)
D. isoberliniae CBS 137981T KJ869133 KJ869245 Crous et al. (2014c)
D. juglandicola CFCC 51134T KU985101 KX024634 KX024628 KX024616 Yang et al. (2017a)
D. kongii BRIP 54031T JF431301 KJ197272 JN645797 Thompson et al. (2011)
D. leucospermi CBS 111980T JN712460 KY435673 KY435653 KY435632 KY435663 Crous et al. (2011c)
D. limonicola CBS 142549T MF418422 MF418582 MF418342 MF418501 MF418256 Guarnaccia & Crous (2017)
D. litchicola BRIP 54900T JX862533 KF170925 JX862539 Tan et al. (2013)
D. lithocarpus CGMCC 3.15175T KC153104 KF576311 KC153095 Gao et al. (2014)
D. litoricola MFLUCC 16-1195T MF190139 Senanayake et al. (2017)
D. longicicola CGMCC 3.17089T KF576267 KF576291 KF576242 Gao et al. (2015)
D. longicolla FAU 599T KJ590728 KJ610883 KJ659188 KJ590767 KJ612124 Udayanga et al. (2015)
D. longispora CBS 194.36T KC343135 KC344103 KC343619 KC343861 KC343377 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. lonicerae MFLUCC 17-0963T KY964190 KY964073 KY964146 KY964116 Dissanayake et al. (2017a)
D. lusitanicae CBS 123212T KC343136 KC344104 KC343620 KC343862 KC343378 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. macintoshii BRIP 55064aT KJ197289 KJ197269 KJ197251 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. mahothocarpus CGMCC 3.15181 KC153096 KC153087 Gao et al. (2014)
D. malorum CBS142383T KY435638 KY435668 KY435648 KY435627 KY435658 Santos et al. (2017)
D. manihotia CBS 505.76 KC343138 KC344106 KC343622 KC343864 KC343380 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. maritima DAOMC 250563T KU552025 KU574615 KU552023 Tanney et al. (2016)
D. masirevicii BRIP 57892aT KJ197277 KJ197257 KJ197239 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. mayteni CBS 133185T KC343139 KC344107 KC343623 KC343865 KC343381 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. maytenicola CBS 136441T KF777157 KF777250 Crous et al. (2013)
D. megalospora CBS 143.27 KC343140 KC344108 KC343624 KC343866 KC343382 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. melitensis CBS 142551T MF418424 MF418584 MF418344 MF418503 MF418258 Guarnaccia & Crous (2017)
D. melonis CBS 507.78T KC343142 KC344110 KC343626 KC343868 KC343384 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. middletonii BRIP 54884eT KJ197286 KJ197266 KJ197248 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. miriciae BRIP 54736jT KJ197283 KJ197263 KJ197245 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. momicola MFLUCC 16-0113T KU557563 KU557587 KU557631 KU557611 Dissanayake et al. (2017c)
D. multigutullata ICMP20656T KJ490633 KJ490454 KJ490575 KJ490512 Huang et al. (2015)
D. musigena CBS 129519T KC343143 KC344111 KC343627 KC343869 KC343385 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. neilliae CBS 144.27T KC343144 KC344112 KC343628 KC343870 KC343386 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. neoarctii CBS 109490 KC343145 KC344113 KC343629 KC343871 KC343387 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. neoraonikayaporum MFLUCC 14-1136T KU712449 KU743988 KU749369 KU749356 Doilom et al. (2017)
D. nomurai CBS 157.29 KC343154 KC344122 KC343638 KC343880 KC343396 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. nothofagi BRIP 54801T JX862530 KF170922 JX862536 Tan et al. (2013)
D. novem CBS 127271T KC343157 KC344125 KC343641 KC343883 KC343399 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. obtusifoliae CBS 143449T MG386072 MG386137 Crous et al. (2017b)
D. ocoteae CBS 141330T KX228293 KX228388 Crous et al. (2016b)
D. oncostoma CBS 589.78 KC343162 KC344130 KC343646 KC343888 KC343404 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. oraccinii LC 3166T KP267863 KP293443 KP293517 KP267937 Gao et al. (2016)
D. ovalispora ICMP20659T KJ490628 KJ490449 KJ490570 KJ490507 Huang et al. (2015)
D. ovoicicola CGMCC 3.17092T KF576264 KF576288 KF576239 KF576222 Gao et al. (2015)
D. oxe CBS 133186T KC343164 KC344132 KC343648 KC343890 KC343406 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. padi var. padi CBS 114200 KC343169 KC344137 KC343653 KC343895 KC343411 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. paranensis CBS 133184 KC343171 KC344139 KC343655 KC343897 KC343413 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. parapterocarpi CBS 137986T KJ869138 KJ869248 Crous et al. (2014c)
D. pascoei BRIP 54847T JX862532 KF170924 JX862538 Tan et al. (2013)
D. passiflorae CBS 132527T JX069860 KY435674 KY435654 KY435633 KY435664 Crous et al. (2012b)
D. passifloricola CBS 141329T KX228292 KX228387 KX228367 Crous et al. (2016b)
D. penetriteum LC 3353 KP714505 KP714529 KP714493 KP714517 Gao et al. (2016)
D. perjuncta CBS 109745T KC343172 KC344140 KC343656 KC343898 KC343414 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. perniciosa CBS 124030 KC343149 KC344117 KC343633 KC343875 KC343391 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. perseae CBS 151.73 KC343173 KC344141 KC343657 KC343899 KC343415 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. pescicola MFLUCC 16-0105T KU557555 KU557579 KU557623 KU557603 Dissanayake et al. (2017c)
D. phaseolorum DP0482, CBS 139280 KJ590738 KJ610893 KJ659220 KJ590739 KJ612135 Udayanga et al. (2015)
D. phragmitis CBS 138897T KP004445 KP004507 KP004503 Crous et al. (2014b)
D. podocarpi-macrophylli CGMCC3.18281T KX986774 KX999207 KX999246 KX999167 KX999278 Gao et al. (2017)
D. pseudomangiferae CBS 101339T KC343181 KC344149 KC343665 KC343907 KC343423 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. pseudophoenicicola CBS 462.69T KC343184 KC344152 KC343668 KC343910 KC343426 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. pseudotsugae MFLU 15-3228 KY964225 KY964108 KY964181 KY964138 Dissanayake et al. (2017a)
D. psoraleae CBS 136412T KF777158 KF777251 KF777245 Crous et al. (2013)
D. psoraleae-pinnatae CBS 136413T KF777159 KF777252 Crous et al. (2013)
D. pterocarpi MFLUCC 10-0571 JQ619899 JX275460 JX275416 JX197451 Udayanga et al. (2012)
D. pterocarpicola MFLUCC 10-0580a JQ619887 JX275441 JX275403 JX197433 Udayanga et al. (2012)
D. pulla CBS 338.89T KC343152 KC344120 KC343636 KC343878 KC343394 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. pustulata CBS 109742 KC343185 KC344153 KC343669 KC343911 KC343427 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. pyracanthae CBS142384T KY435635 KY435666 KY435645 KY435625 KY435656 Santos et al. (2017)
D. racemosae CBS 143770T MG600223 MG600227 MG600221 MG600225 MG600219 Present study
D. raonikayaporum CBS 133182T KC343188 KC344156 KC343672 KC343914 KC343430 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. ravennica MFLUCC 15-0479T KU900335 KX432254 KX365197 Dissanayake et al. (2017a)
D. rhoina CBS 146.27 KC343189 KC344157 KC343673 KC343915 KC343431 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. rostrata CFCC 50062T KP208847 KP208855 KP208851 KP208853 KP208849 Fan et al. (2015)
D. rudis CBS 113201 KC343234 KC344202 KC343718 KC343960 KC343476 Udayanga et al. (2014b)
D. saccarata CBS 116311T KC343190 KC344158 KC343674 KC343916 KC343432 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. sackstonii BRIP 54669bT KJ197287 KJ197267 KJ197249 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. salicicola BRIP 54825T JX862531 KF170923 JX862537 Tan et al. (2013)
D. sambucusii CFCC 51986T KY852495 KY852511 KY852503 KY852507 KY852499 Yang et al. (2018)
D. schini CBS 133181T KC343191 KC344159 KC343675 KC343917 KC343433 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. schisandrae CFCC 51988T KY852497 KY852513 KY852505 KY852509 KY852501 Yang et al. (2018)
D. schoeni MFLU 15-1279T KY964226 KY964109 KY964182 KY964139 Dissanayake et al. (2017a)
D. sclerotioides CBS 296.67T KC343193 KC344161 KC343677 KC343919 KC343435 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. scobina CBS 251.38 KC343195 KC344163 KC343679 KC343921 KC343437 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. sennae CFCC 51636T KY203724 KY228891 KY228885 KY228875 Yang et al. (2017b)
D. sennicola CFCC 51634T KY203722 KY228889 KY228883 KY228873 Yang et al. (2017b)
D. serafiniae BRIP 55665aT KJ197274 KJ197254 KJ197236 Thompson et al. (2015)
D. siamensis MFLUCC 10-0573a JQ619879 JX275429 JX275393 Udayanga et al. (2012)
D. sojae CBS 139282T KJ590719 KJ610875 KJ659208 KJ590762 KJ612116 Udayanga et al. (2015)
D. spartinicola CBS 140003T KR611879 KR857695 KR857696 Crous et al. (2015c)
D. sterilis CBS 136969T KJ160579 KJ160528 MF418350 KJ160611 KJ160548 Lombard et al. (2014)
D. stewartii CBS 193.36 FJ889448 GQ250324 Santos et al. (2010)
D. stictica CBS 370.54 KC343212 KC344180 KC343696 KC343938 KC343454 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. subclavata ICMP20663T KJ490630 KJ490451 KJ490572 KJ490509 Huang et al. (2015)
D. subordinaria CBS 101711 KC343213 KC344181 KC343697 KC343939 KC343455 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. taoicola MFLUCC 16-0117T KU557567 KU557591 KU557635 Dissanayake et al. (2017c)
D. tecomae CBS 100547 KC343215 KC344183 KC343699 KC343941 KC343457 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. tectonae MFLUCC 12-0777T KU712430 KU743977 KU749359 KU749345 Doilom et al. (2017)
D. tectonendophytica MFLUCC 13-0471T KU712439 KU743986 KU749367 KU749354 Doilom et al. (2017)
D. tectonigena MFLUCC 12-0767T KU712429 KU743976 KU749371 KU749358 Doilom et al. (2017)
D. terebinthifolii CBS 133180T KC343216 KC344184 KC343700 KC343942 KC343458 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. ternstroemia CGMCC 3.15183T KC153098 KC153089 Gao et al. (2014)
D. thunbergii MFLUCC 10-0756a JQ619893 JX275449 JX275409 JX197440 Udayanga et al. (2012)
D. torilicola MFLUCC 17-1051T KY964212 KY964096 KY964168 KY964127 Dissanayake et al. (2017a)
D. toxica CBS 534.93T KC343220 KC344188 KC343704 KC343946 KC343462 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. toxicodendri FFPRI420987 LC275192 LC275224 LC275216 LC275216 LC275200 Ando et al. (2017)
D. tulliensis BRIP 62248a KR936130 KR936132 KR936133 Crous et al. (2015e)
D. ueckerae FAU 656 KJ590726 KJ610881 KJ659215 KJ590747 KJ612122 Huang et al. (2015)
D. undulata CGMCC 3.18293T KX986798 KX999230 KX999269 KX999190 Gao et al. (2017)
D. unshiuensis CGMCC3.17569T KJ490587 KJ490408 KJ490529 KJ490466 Huang et al. (2015)
D. vaccinii CBS 160.32T AF317578 KC344196 KC343712 GQ250326 KC343470 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. vangueriae CBS 137985T KJ869137 KJ869247 Crous et al. (2014c)
D. vawdreyi BRIP 57887a KR936126 KR936128   KR936129 Crous et al. (2015e)
D. velutina CGMCC 3.18286T KX986790 KX999223 KX999261 KX999182 Gao et al. (2017)
D. vexans CBS 127.14 KC343229 KC344197 KC343713 KC343955 KC343471 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. virgiliae CBS 138788T KP247573 KP247582 Machingambi et al. (2015)
D. woodii CBS 558.93 KC343244 KC344212 KC343728 KC343970 KC343486 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. woolworthii CBS 148.27 KC343245 KC344213 KC343729 KC343971 KC343487 Gomes et al. (2013)
D. xishuangbanica CGMCC 3.18282T KX986783 KX999216 KX999255 KX999175 Gao et al. (2017)
D. yunnanensis CGMCC 3.18289T KX986796 KX999228 KX999267 KX999188 KX999290 Gao et al. (2017)

BRIP: Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium, Brisbane, Australia; CBS: Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Utrecht, the Netherlands; CFCC: China Forestry Culture Collection Center, Beijing, China; CGMCC: Chinese General Microbiological Culture Collection Center, Beijing, China; DAOM: Plant Research Institute, Department of Agriculture (Mycology), Ottawa, Canada; DAOMC: Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures, Ottawa, Canada; FAU: Isolates in culture collection of Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory; FFPRI: Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan; ICMP: International Collection of Micro-organisms from Plants, Landcare Research, Private Bag 92170, Auckland, New Zealand; IFRDCC: International Fungal Research and Development Culture Collection; MFLU: Mae Fah Luang University herbarium, Thailand; MFLUCC: Mae Fah Luang University Culture Collection, Chiang Rai, Thailand; LC: Working collection of Lei Cai, housed at Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. T indicates ex-type strains.


ITS: internal transcribed spacers and intervening 5.8S nrDNA; tub2: partial β-tubulin gene; his3: partial histone H3 gene; tef1: partial elongation factor 1-alpha gene; cal: partial calmodulin gene.

Fig. 9. Consensus phylogram of 2 052 trees resulting from a Bayesian analysis of the combined ITS (637 bp), tub2 (833 bp), his3 (592 bp), tef1 (496 bp) and cal (817 bp) sequence alignment of Diaporthe spp. Bootstrap support values and Bayesian posterior probability values are indicated at the nodes. Substrate and country of origin are listed next to the strain numbers. The newly recognised species are showed in bold. The tree was rooted to Diaporthella corylina CBS 121124. T indicates ex-type strain. TreeBASE: S21865.

Ascomata immersed in substrate, subglobose or irregular, solitary or clustered in groups, often erumpent through a pseudostroma mostly surrounding ascomata with more or less elongated ascomatal necks. Pseudostroma distinct, often delimited with dark lines. Asci unitunicate, 8-spored, sessile, elongate to clavate or cylindrical, loosening from ascogenous cells at an early stage and floating free in ascomata. Ascospores biseriate to uniseriate in ascus, fusoid, ellipsoid to cylindrical, straight, inequilateral or curved, septate, hyaline, sometimes with appendages. Conidiomata pycnidial, deeply embedded in culture on several media, globose to conical, eustromatic, multilocular, occasionally with ostiolate necks, scattered or aggregated, brown to black, surface covered with hyphae, cream to pale luteous or yellowish, conidial droplets or cirrus exuding from central ostioles; conidiomatal wall consisting of pale brown, thick walled, textura angularis. Conidiophores cylindrical to clavate, straight to sinuous, densely aggregated, branched, 0–6-septate, smooth, hyaline in upper region, pale brown at base. Conidiogenous cells phialidic, hyaline, cylindrical, terminal and lateral, tapering slightly towards apex. Paraphyses occasionally produced, intermingled among conidiophores, hyaline, smooth, 1–3-septate. Alpha conidia aseptate, generally hyaline, smooth, fusiform to ellipsoidal, with obtuse or acute to rounded ends, non- to multi-guttulate, but often bi-guttulate. Beta conidia aseptate, hyaline, filiform, smooth, straight or more often hooked, eguttulate, tapering or truncated towards ends. Gamma conidia rarely produced, hyaline, smooth, non- to multi-guttulate, fusiform to subcylindrical with acute or rounded apex (adapted from Gomes et al., 2013, Udayanga et al., 2014a).

Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA, PDA and OA producing abundant compact, flattened, aerial mycelium, sometimes in rings, with an entire to irregular margin, white, cream to yellowish or pale olivaceous grey, smoke grey to grey, cottony; reverse pale brown to grey, dark green, producing brownish dots with age, with solitary or aggregated conidiomata at maturity.

Optimal media and cultivation conditions: On MEA, PDA and OA at 25 °C, or sterile pine needles placed on SNA at 25 °C under near-ultraviolet light (12 h light, 12 h dark) to induce sporulation of the asexual morph.

Distribution: Worldwide.

Hosts: On a wide range of plant families.

Disease symptoms: Root and fruit rots, dieback, stem cankers, leaf spots, leaf and pod blights, and seed decay.

Notes: The genus Diaporthe presently includes 213 species supported by ex-type cultures and supplementary DNA barcodes, which include endophytes, saprobes and important plant pathogenic species. Recent phylogenetic analyses of the genus Diaporthe grouped some of those species into complexes, such as D. arecae, D. eres and D. sojae (Huang et al., 2013, Udayanga et al., 2014a, Udayanga et al., 2015). Several pathology studies confirmed Diaporthe species to be associated with diverse suites of diseases (Fig. 7) on a broad range of economically important agricultural crops (Udayanga et al. 2011). More than one Diaporthe species is frequently reported as causative agents of the same disease (Thompson et al., 2011, Guarnaccia et al., 2016).

 Although Diaporthe was historically considered monophyletic based on the typical phomopsis-like asexual morph, the paraphyletic nature of this genus was recently revealed (Gao et al., 2017, Senanayake et al., 2017). Most of the known species in early literature were described in relation to their host association and morphological characters. However, a single species of Diaporthe can be found on diverse hosts, and can co-occur on the same host or lesion in different life modes. Phylogenetic studies demonstrated that morphological characters are not always reliable for species level identification due to their variability under changing environmental conditions (Gomes et al. 2013). As a consequence, identification and description of species based on host association alone is no longer tenable. For accurate species delimitation, phylogenetic inference of the ITS, cal, his3, tef1 and tub2 or combinations of these is required.

References: Mostert et al., 2001, Van Niekerk et al., 2005, Thompson et al., 2011, Guarnaccia et al., 2016, Guarnaccia et al., 2018 (morphology, pathogenicity and phylogeny); Udayanga et al., 2011, Udayanga et al., 2014a, Udayanga et al., 2015, Gomes et al., 2013 (morphology and phylogeny); Dissanayake et al., 2017b, Dissanayake et al., 2017c, Gao et al., 2017 (phylogeny).

Diaporthe heterophyllae

Guarnaccia & Crous, sp. nov. MycoBank MB823830. Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. Diaporthe heterophyllae (ex-type CBS 143769). AC. Colonies on MEA, PDA and OA, respectively. D. Conidiomata sporulating on PNA. E. Conidiogenous cells and conidia. F. Alpha and beta conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Etymology: Name refers to Acacia heterophylla, the host from which this fungus was collected.

On PNA: Conidiomata 250–350 μm diam, pycnidial, globose or irregular, solitary, deeply embedded in media, erumpent, dark brown to black, whitish translucent to yellow conidial drops and/or cirrus exuded from ostioles; conidiomatal wall consisting of 3–4 layers of medium brown textura angularis. Conidiophores 7–22 × 1.5–4 μm, hyaline, smooth, 0–1-septate, densely aggregated, cylindrical, straight. Conidiogenous cells 6–9 × 1–2 μm, phialidic, hyaline, terminal, cylindrical, tapered towards apex. Paraphyses not observed. Alpha conidia 6–10.5 × 2.5–4.5 μm, mean ± SD = 8.4 ± 1.1 × 3.2 ± 0.4 μm, L/W ratio = 2.6, aseptate, ovate to ellipsoidal, hyaline, multi-guttulate and acute or rounded at both ends. Beta conidia 17–24 × 1–2 μm, mean ± SD = 21.7 ± 1.8 × 1.5 ± 0.3 μm, L/W ratio = 14.5, hyaline, aseptate, eguttulate, filiform, curved, tapering towards both ends. Gamma conidia not observed.

Culture characteristics: Colonies covering medium within 10 d at 21 °C, with surface mycelium flattened, dense and felty. Colony on MEA, PDA and OA at first white, becoming cream to yellowish, flat on MEA and OA, dense, felted on PDA; reverse grey with brownish dots with age, with visible solitary conidiomata at maturity on all media.

Material examined: France, La Rèunion, on Acacia heterophylla (Fabaceae), 8 Mar. 2015, P.W. Crous (holotype CBS H-23376, culture ex-type CBS 143769 = CPC 26215).

Notes: Diaporthe heterophyllae is phylogenetically close but clearly differentiated from D. eres based on ITS, tef1, tub2, his3 and cal sequence similarity (98 %, 88 %, 97 %, 95 %, and 97 %, respectively). Morphologically, D. heterophyllae differs from D. eres in its longer alpha conidia (6.5–10.5 vs. 6–8.5 μm) and in its shorter beta conidia (17–24 vs. 22–28 μm) (Udayanga et al. 2014a).

Diaporthe racemosae A.R. Wood, Guarnaccia & Crous, sp. nov. MycoBank MB823831. Fig. 11.

Fig. 11. Diaporthe racemosae (ex-type CBS 143770). A–C. Colonies on MEA, PDA and OA, respectively. D. Conidiomata sporulating on PNA. E. Conidiogenous cells and conidia. F. Alpha conidia. Scale bars = 10 μm.

Etymology: Name refers to Euclea racemosa, the host from which this fungus was collected.

On PNA: Conidiomata 350–600 μm diam, pycnidial, globose or irregular, solitary, deeply embedded in media, erumpent, dark brown to black, yellowish translucent to pale brown conidial drops and/or cirrus exuded from ostioles; conidiomatal wall consisting of 3–4 layers of pale brown textura angularis. Conidiophores 7–17 × 2–4 μm, hyaline, smooth, 0–1-septate, densely aggregated, cylindrical, straight. Conidiogenous cells 5.5–8 × 1–2 μm, phialidic, hyaline, terminal, subcylindrical, tapered towards apex. Paraphyses not observed. Alpha conidia 4–6.5 × 2–3 μm, mean ± SD = 5.7 ± 0.6 × 2.3 ± 0.3 μm, L/W ratio = 2.5, aseptate, ellipsoidal to subcylindrical, hyaline, non- to multi-guttulate and acute or rounded at both ends. Beta and gamma conidia not observed.

Culture characteristics: Colonies covering medium within 10 d at 21 °C, with surface mycelium flattened, dense and felty. Colony on MEA and OA at first white, becoming olivaceous to dark grey. On PDA at first white, becoming white to yellowish; reverse grey with brownish dots with age, with visible solitary conidiomata at maturity on all media.

Material examined: South Africa, Western Cape, Bot River, from Euclea racemosa (Ebenaceae), 29 Dec. 2014, A.R. Wood (holotype CBS H-23377, culture ex-type CBS 143770 = CPC 26646).

Notes: Diaporthe racemosae is phylogenetically close but clearly differentiated from D. schini based on ITS, tef1, tub2, his3 and cal sequence similarity (98 %, 94 %, 98 %, 94 %, and 96 %, respectively). Moreover, D. racemosa produces only alpha conidia, while D. schini produces only beta conidia (Gomes et al. 2013).

Authors: V. Guarnaccia, A.R. Wood & P.W. Crous