Pers., Traité sur les Champignons Comestibles (Paris): 55. 147. 1818. Fig. 46.
Classification: Dothideomycetes, Dothideomycetidae, Botryosphaeriales, Phyllostictaceae.
Type species: Phyllosticta convallariae Pers., nom. inval. (= Phyllosticta cruenta (Fr.) J. Kickx f.). Reference strain: CBS 858.71.
DNA barcode (genus): LSU.
ATCC: American Type Culture Collection, Virginia, USA; BRIP: Queensland Plant Pathology Herbarium, Brisbane, Australia; CBS: Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands; CGMCC: Chinese General Microbiological Culture Collection Center, Beijing, China; CPC: Culture collection of Pedro Crous, housed at Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute; MUCC: Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia; NBRC: Biological Resource Center, NITE, Chiva, Japan; URM: Culture Collection Mycobank, Prof. Maria Auxiliadora Cavalcanti, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil. T, ET, IsoT, IsoET and NT indicate ex-type, ex-epitype, ex-isotype, ex-isoepitype and ex-neotype strains, respectively.
ITS: internal transcribed spacers and intervening 5.8S nrDNA; act: partial actin gene; gapdh: partial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene; tef1: partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene.
Ascomata pseudothecial, separate to gregarious, globose to subglobose, brown to black, unilocular with a central ostiole. Pseudoparaphyses mostly absent at maturity, filamentous, branched, septate when present. Asci bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate to subcylindrical, 8-spored, fasciculate, stipitate, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores bi- to triseriate, hyaline, guttulate to granular, aseptate, ellipsoid, ellipsoid-fusoid to limoniform, smooth-walled, usually with mucilaginous caps at ends, or surrounded by a mucilaginous sheath. Conidiomata and spermatogonia pycnidial, immersed, subepidermal to erumpent, unilocular, rarely multilocular, glabrous, ostiolate, dark brown to black; ostiole circular to oval; conidiomatal wall thick-walled, dark brown, textura angularis, with inner layers of hyaline to pale brown, thin-walled, textura prismatica to angularis. Conidiophores lining cavity of conidioma, reduced to conidiogenous cells, invested in mucus. Conidiogenous cells discrete, producing macroconidia and spermatia, also produced in separate spermatogonia, ampulliform, lageniform, doliiform to subcylindrical, hyaline, smooth, proliferating percurrently near apex, invested in a mucoid layer. Conidia ellipsoid-fusoid to obovoid or ovoid, rarely subcylindrical, aseptate, broadly rounded at apex, often tapering strongly toward base, unicellular, hyaline, smooth-walled, guttulate to granular, often enclosed in a persistent mucilaginous sheath, and bearing an unbranched, tapering, straight to curved, mucoid apical appendage. Spermatogenous cells ampulliform to lageniform or subcylindrical, hyaline, smooth, phialidic. Spermatia hyaline, smooth, granular, subcylindrical or dumbbell-shaped, with rounded or blunt ends (adapted from Wikee et al. 2013b).
Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA, OA and PDA after 2 wk in dark at 27 °C erumpent or flat, spreading with sparse or moderate aerial mycelium; on MEA, OA and PDA surface frequently iron-grey or olivaceous grey, less frequently greenish to dark green; reverse iron-grey, olivaceous grey or black.
Optimal media and cultivation conditions: PNA, OA, PDA and SNA under near-ultraviolet light at 27 °C to induce sporulation.
Hosts: Wide range of hosts from trees to ornamentals.
Disease symptoms: Leaf spots and various fruit diseases.
Notes: Phyllosticta was introduced by Persoon (1818), with Phy. convallariae designated as type species (Donk 1968). However, this species was invalid because it lacked a description. Therefore, Phy. cruenta, which is a synonym of Phy. convallariae, was designated as type of the genus (van der Aa & Vanev 2002). There is no available type material for this species, which was described from Polygonatum multiflorum collected in Germany. A strain deposited in CBS previously identified as Guignardia reticulata, which is the sexual morph of Phy. cruenta, was isolated from Polygonatum odoratum in the Czech Republic, being a potential neotype for Phy. cruenta. However, this strain is sterile and we have chosen to consider it as a reference strain since we could not confirm its identification based on morphology.
Phyllosticta includes plant pathogenic species that cause diseases of significant economic importance. For example, Phy. citricarpa is the responsible for citrus black spot, which is considered a quarantine pest in Europe and the USA (Baayen et al., 2002, Glienke et al., 2011, Guarnaccia et al., 2017). Other examples include the Phy. ampelicida species complex that causes black rot disease on grapevines (Wicht et al., 2012, Carstens et al., 2017), and the Phy. musarum species complex that is responsible for banana freckle disease (Pu et al., 2008, Wong et al., 2012).
Phoma and Phyllosticta have been difficult to distinguish since both genera were recognised as pycnidial fungi producing unicellular, hyaline conidia. Subsequent molecular data enabled the discrimination of both genera, as well as the fact that Phyllosticta was linked to its sexual morph, Guignardia (Glienke et al., 2011, Wikee et al., 2011, Wikee et al., 2013b, Wong et al., 2012, Zhou et al., 2015, Guarnaccia et al., 2017).
Phyllosticta was formerly placed in the Botryosphaeriaceae, together with Botryosphaeria (Schoch et al. 2006). However, Wikee et al. (2013b) showed that it represents a different phylogenetic lineage, for which the family name Phyllostictaceae (Fries 1849) was resurrected.
References: van der Aa 1973 (morphology and pathogenicity); van der Aa & Vanev 2002 (synonyms, collection information and notes); Glienke et al., 2011, Wong et al., 2012, Wikee et al., 2013b, Zhou et al., 2015, Guarnaccia et al., 2017 (ecology, morphology and phylogeny); Wikee et al. 2011 (pathogenicity and phylogeny).
Y. Marín & Crous, sp. nov. MycoBank MB823971. Fig. 48.
Etymology: Name reflects the host it was isolated from, Iris.
Conidiomata 90–200 μm diam, pycnidial, solitary, globose, dark brown, with central ostiole; conidiomatal wall of 3–8 layers of brown textura angularis. Conidiophores lining cavity, reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells 4–7 × 4–6 μm, doliiform, hyaline, smooth, proliferating percurrently at apex. Conidia (10–)12–13(–15) × (7–)8(–9) μm, solitary, ellipsoid to obovoid, aseptate, smooth, hyaline, guttulate, granular; conidia encased in a mucoid sheath 2–3 μm diam, and a single apical mucoid appendage, 7–15 × 2 μm, tapering to acutely rounded apex.
Culture characteristics: Colonies flat, spreading, with moderate aerial mycelium and smooth, feathery margins, reaching 45 mm diam after 2 wk at 25 °C. On MEA surface pale olivaceous grey; reverse iron-grey. On PDA surface and reverse olivaceous grey. On OA surface pale olivaceous grey with diffuse yellow pigment in agar.
Material examined: South Africa, on Iris sp. (Iridaceae), 16 Jan. 2010, P.W. Crous (holotype CBS H-23385, culture ex-type CBS 143410 = CPC 32669).
Notes: This species clusters in a well-supported clade (95 % BS / 1 PP) with Phy. hypoglossi and Phy. cussoniae. Phyllosticta hypoglossi produces longer conidiogenous cells (10–15 μm) and wider conidia [(9–)10(–11) μm] than Phy. iridigena. Moreover, these three species are isolated from different hosts, i.e. Phy. hypoglossi from Ruscus (Ruscaceae), Phy. cussoniae from Cussonia (Araliaceae) and Phy. iridigena from Iris (Iridaceae). Phyllosticta cussonia and Phy. iridigena have been found in the same country, South Africa, while Phy. hypoglossi is an European species.
Y. Marín & Crous, sp. nov. MycoBank MB823972. Fig. 49.
Etymology: Name reflects the host genus Persoonia from which it was isolated.
Conidiomata 200–300 μm diam, pycnidial, solitary, globose, dark brown, with central ostiole; conidiomatal wall of 3–8 layers of brown textura angularis. Conidiophores 10–18 × 6–7 μm, lining cavity, 0–1-septate, subcylindrical, hyaline, smooth, rarely branched. Conidiogenous cells 9–17 × 4–5 μm, terminal, subcylindrical, hyaline, smooth, proliferating percurrently at apex. Conidia (9–)10–11(–12) × (7–)8(–9) μm, solitary, ellipsoid to obovoid, aseptate, smooth, hyaline, guttulate, granular; conidia encased in a mucoid sheath that is inconspicuous and dissolves at maturity, but with a single apical mucoid appendage, 7–15 × 2–3 μm, tapering to acutely rounded apex.
Culture characteristics: Colonies flat to erumpent, spreading, with sparse to moderate aerial mycelium and feathery, lobate margins, reaching 30 mm diam after 2 wk at 25 °C. On MEA surface smoke grey; reverse olivaceous grey. On PDA surface and reverse olivaceous grey. On OA surface pale mouse grey.
Material examined: Australia, New South Wales, South East Forests National Park, Nunnock Swamp, on Persoonia sp. (Proteaceae), 28 Nov. 2016, P.W. Crous (holotype CBS H-23386, culture ex-type CBS 143409 = CPC 32603).
Notes: Phyllosticta persooniae is phylogenetically distant from all other species of Phyllosticta, the most closely related species being Phy. foliorum. Morphologically, these can be distinguished by the size of their conidia. Phyllostica foliorum is characterised by its larger conidia i.e. (12–)13–14(–15) × (9–)10(–11) ìm vs. (9–)10–11(–12) × (7–)8(–9) μm in Phy. persooniae. Moreover, Phy. foliorum has never been found on Persoonia (Proteaceae) or in Australia, which is the host and distribution of Phy. persooniae (Farr & Rossman 2017). Most species of Phyllosticta are host-specific.
Authors: Y. Marin-Felix & P.W. Crous